Under the Paris Agreement, the Parties have the right to include emission reductions in any country other than their NDC in accordance with the Emissions Trading and Accounting Scheme. A major caveat regarding the outlook for India is the continued expansion of coal. The 1.5-degree limit in the Paris Agreement means that India must phase out coal in the electricity sector by 2040. The National Electricity Plan (NEP) in 2018 included more than 90 GW of planned coal-fired power plant capacity, which would unnecessarily increase emissions and carry the risk of becoming stranded assets. Abandoning these plans is more than feasible when one takes into account recent developments such as a 50% reduction in solar energy costs in just two years and several utilities putting plans to build coal-fired power plants on hold. The Paris Agreement was signed in 2016 by the 195 signatories to the UNFCCC. The agreement aims to reduce and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In the Paris Agreement, there is no difference between developing and developed countries. The Kyoto Protocol distinguishes between developed and developing countries by classifying them as Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries. It is a multilateral agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); reduce and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
While interventions in the electricity sector have been largely driven by strong political commitments, there are also increasing measures in the transport sector. India has a target of 30% ev sales by 2030, up from 100% initially proposed, which would have been a consistent benchmark under the Paris Agreement. Recent policy announcements suggest that the government is prioritizing the development of royalties and manufacturing infrastructure to facilitate the transition to a low-carbon transportation system. In July 2020, Indian Railways announced its intention to achieve net-zero emissions by 2030. This follows the goal of achieving full electrification of the grid by 2023. In 2015, ahead of the major United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris, India announced three major voluntary commitments called Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs): Currently, 195 members of the UNFCCC have signed them. However, US President Donald Trump has announced that he will withdraw from the deal by November 2020. Ahead of COP 21 in Paris, countries were invited to submit Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). There has been a significant change in the commitments of different countries.
India has been placed in the group of emerging economies and India has lived up to its mission as a responsible nation in the fight against climate change. In 2017, the US president announced that he would withdraw from the agreement. The effective date of the U.S. withdrawal is November 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant social and economic challenges alongside a number of climate disasters such as Cyclone Amphan. The economic shutdown due to the pandemic is leading to a sharp reduction in emissions in the short term, but they will rise again at the same rate unless India develops a targeted green recovery strategy against COVID-19. With a massive 10% of GDP stimulus package and the experience of clean air during the lockdown, the crisis offers India the opportunity to accelerate the transition from coal to renewables and accelerate the adoption of electric mobility. There is no clear sign that India is seizing this opportunity. Although no new coal-fired power plants have been built in 2020, the government is further encouraging coal mining and increasing coal production, which is incompatible with a green recovery. India needs to develop a just transition strategy to phase out coal for power generation by 2040.
The CAT believes that India`s NDC target is “in line with 2°C”, suggesting that India`s 2030 climate commitment will be seen as a fair share of global efforts based on its responsibility and capabilities. But this is not in line with the Paris Agreement, and domestic emissions must peak and begin to be reduced, including with international support. It is possible for the nation to become a global leader with improved targets in line with 1.5 and a just and rapid transition from coal to a world leader and accelerate the transition to renewable energy. which would bring great benefits for sustainable development, including health and employment. India`s commitment to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070 is similar not only to the direction of the climate crisis, but also to the direction of the talks. According to this goal, India will reduce its carbon emissions by 1 billion tons (1 Gt) and therefore our emissions will be 3.48 Gt in 2030. It would also require India to reinvent its mobility systems so that we can move people rather than vehicles – improving public transport in our cities and improving the thermal efficiency of our homes. All of this is in our best interest. India has set a goal of reaching 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022 and 450 GW by 2030, including an expansion of solar investments in the agricultural sector, leveraging the potential of off-grid solar PV pumps not only to provide reliable electricity to pump generators, but also to create additional income opportunities for farmers (India is expected to have 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030: President, 2020). For the first time in 2018, solar investments surpassed investments in coal. The rise of renewable energy in India can provide access to affordable energy on a large scale and quickly, with a growing cost inequality between falling auction prices for wind and solar and rising costs of coal-fired power generation.
Coal-fired electricity generation and its share of the electricity mix fell sharply in the first half of 2020 – by 14% compared to H1-2019, and the share of renewables increased. The growth of energy-related CO2 emissions has already slowed in 2019 due to lower electricity demand and the increased share of renewables. India`s Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has released forecasts for the country`s energy mix for 2030. According to the report, India`s installed non-fossil energy generation capacity – solar, wind, Hydel and nuclear – was 134 GW in 2019 and will be 522 GW by 2030. This requires the installed capacity of solar energy to increase to 280 GW and wind energy to 140 GW. India`s 2030 energy target and plan also implies that India will reduce its coal-based energy; There is currently about 60 GW of coal-fired heat generation under construction and in the pipeline. As carbon dioxide emissions accumulate in the atmosphere – the average length of stay is 150 to 200 years – and it is this supply of emissions that “forces” the temperature rise, India has pledged not to increase this burden. In terms of per capita: India would be 2.98 tons of CO2 per capita and according to this target of 2.31 tons per capita. If you compare that to the world, the US will be 9.42 tonnes in 2030, the EU 4.12 tonnes in 2030, the UK will host CoP26 will be 2.7 tonnes in 2030 and China 8.88 tonnes per capita. But what do these ambitious goals mean? Let me decipher them: according to the CEA, India`s coal capacity will be 266 GW by 2030 – which is an addition of 38 GW (which is pretty much what is currently under construction). This means that India has said it will not invest in new coal beyond that. *Including import from Bhutan Source: Central Electricity Authority For more details, see current policy forecasts Paris Agreement – COP21 (UPSC Notes):-D In self-download PDF Here, India`s current CO2 emissions (2021) are 2.88 Gt.
According to forecasts by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), based on the average annual rate of change over the last decade 2010-2019, India`s production will be 4.48 Gt in a business-as-usual scenario in 2030. India has agreed to a massive transformation of our energy systems that will be designed for the future and meet the new climate protection goals. So, from every angle, we didn`t have to meet these global targets to reduce our carbon emissions. For this reason, it is not only a challenge for India, but also a challenge for the world to follow this example. If we consider hydropower to be part of renewable energy – as we see globally – then we need to increase the new renewable capacity to 630 GW. It is quite feasible. India`s climate goals are laudable and firmly put the ball in the court of the already rich world to show now that they are serious. That`s because India hasn`t contributed to greenhouse gas emissions in the past – from 1870 to 2019, its emissions totaled a tiny 4% of the global total.