In terms of taxes, the standard tax rate (VAT) for corporate profits in Switzerland is 8%, which varies according to cantonal taxation. There are also reduced VAT rates for hotels (3.8%) and commodities (2.5%). The accounting records of all companies must be kept and submitted to the competent authorities, and certain types of companies also have audit requirements. Bulgaria has the lowest personal and corporate tax rates in the European Union (Andorra is not a member), both of which are a flat rate of 10%. Although you also pay a 10% capital gains tax on profits from the sale of real estate, there is no capital gains tax on your profits if you have investments or trade on the stock market in the EU. European OECD countries, like most parts of the world, have seen a decline in corporate tax rates in recent decades. In 2000, the average corporate tax rate was 31.6 per cent and has fallen steadily to the current level of 21.7 per cent. The Principality of Andorra is located in the Pyrenees between Spain and France. It did not have an income tax before 2015, but gave in to pressure from the European Union (of which it is not a member, although the euro is its official currency). Nevertheless, it remains a low-tax region between two countries with very high tax rates. Its fiscal policies put it in a better position to attract those with more moderate means than countries like Monaco, which offer a wheelhouse to the very rich. Andorra is considered one of the safest places in Europe and has one of the best health systems in southern Europe. Its cost of living is at the level of Spain and is considerably lower than that of Great Britain, France or Germany.
While the maximum tax rate published for companies operating in Luxembourg is 24.94%, with a property tax rate of 17%, to which is added a municipal business tax of 6.75% and a contribution of 1.19% to an employment fund, in 2014, private tax treaties with Luxembourg discovered by investigative journalists showed that hundreds of multinational companies pay an effective tax rate of less than 1%. Andorra has no wealth tax, no inheritance tax, no gift tax and only levies capital gains tax on the sale of Andorran real estate, the purchase of which is necessary if you want to establish a tax residence in the Principality. Tax rates vary from 0%t0 to 10% and come into effect as soon as income exceeds €40,000. There is a generous standard exemption of €24,000. Corporate tax rates range from 2% to 10%.  As no average is given in this section, it covers the 225 countries and territories for which corporate tax rates have been established for 2021 (including those for which GDP data were not available). Corporate tax rates can vary significantly from region to region. At 27.97%, Africa has the highest average corporate tax rate of any region. At 19.62%, Asia has the lowest average legal corporate tax rate of any region. The highest tax rate in Liechtenstein is 8% for people earning more than CHF 200,000 ($219,000). However, there are local communities in Liechtenstein that levy an additional tax on the national tax, which increases the effective tax rates in the different national classes from 2.5% at the lower end to 22.4% at the upper end.
There is also a 7.7% VAT on many goods and services, a real estate capital gains tax of 3-4%, a 4% wealth tax on the market value of assets, and a tax on charitable donations that would otherwise reduce the wealth tax paid. On the positive side, there is no inheritance, inheritance or gift tax in Liechtenstein, and capital gains from the sale of shares to domestic or foreign companies are exempt from tax. So, overall, there are better places than Liechtenstein for people who want tax relief to establish tax residency. In addition, there is fierce competition around the 89 residences offered each year, and if you want an investor visa, it will cost you at least $110,000 and result in the obligation to create new jobs for Liechtenstein residents. Your temporary residence can be converted to permanent residence after 5 years, and you are eligible to apply for citizenship after living in the country for 30 years.  Kari Jahnsen and Kyle Pomerleau, “Corporate Income Tax Rates around the World, 2017,” Tax Foundation, September 7, 2017, www.taxfoundation.org/corporate-income-tax-rates-around-the-world-2017/. To calculate average GDP-weighted statutory corporate tax rates, the dataset contains GDP data for 180 jurisdictions. When calculating average statutory corporate tax rates, whether GDP-weighted or unweighted, only these 180 countries and territories are included (to ensure comparability of unweighted and weighted averages). In addition, the dataset includes historical official corporate tax rates for the period 1980 to 2021. However, these years cover the tax rates of fewer than 225 jurisdictions due to the lack of data points. Please inform the Tax Foundation if you are aware of any sources of historical corporate tax rates that are not mentioned in this report, as we are constantly striving to improve our data sets.  This average is lower than the average for the 180 countries and territories, as many of the jurisdictions for which GDP data are not available are small economies with low corporate tax rates.
This is a list of potential maximum tax rates in Europe for certain income classes. It focuses on three types of taxes: corporation tax, retail trade tax and value added tax (VAT). It is not intended to represent the real tax burden on the company or individual in the listed country. The following map shows the current state of corporate tax rates around the world. Countries in Africa and South America tend to have higher corporate tax rates than Asian and European jurisdictions. Corporate tax rates in Oceania and North America are generally close to the global average.  HM Revenue and Customs, “Corporate Tax and Rates from 1 April 2022 and Small Profit Rate and Marginal Relief from 1 April 2023”, 3 March 2021, www.gov.uk/government/publications/corporation-tax-charge-and-rates-from-1-april-2022-and-small-profits-rate-and-marginal-relief-from-1-april-2023/corporation-tax-charge-and-rates-from-1-april-2022-and-small-profits-rate-and-marginal-relief-from-1-april-2023`income tax in Portugal depends on an income tax in Portugal depends on a Some factors include: regional (different tax rates depending on whether you live on the mainland, in the Azores or madeira, marital status and number of relatives. The tax system of the Republic of Georgia works favorably for individuals and businesses. In particular, income tax is 1% for individuals with an annual income of up to 500,000 Georgian Lari (GEL), or about $145,000, with 0% personal income tax on income from outside Georgia or from the resale of cryptocurrencies. The 15% corporate income tax is payable only after the dividends have been paid to the shareholders and the money has been received in the company`s bank account. Georgian legal persons are not taxed on the profits of foreign subsidiaries unless these subsidiaries are registered in tax havens.
There are also income tax exemptions for IT companies that provide services outside Georgia and “free industrial zones” that offer tax exemptions in Georgia. Banking services in Georgia are also world-class. Notes: * Bahrain does not have a general corporate tax, but a targeted tax on oil companies, which can reach 46%. See Deloitte, “International Tax – Bahrain Highlights 2021,” last updated January 2021, www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Tax/dttl-tax-bahrainhighlights-2021.pdf. The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven different emirates. Since 1960, each emirate has had the discretion to levy up to 55% corporate tax rate on each company. In practice, this tax is mainly levied by foreign banks and oil companies. For more information on the UAE tax system, see PwC, “Worldwide Tax Summaries – Corporate Income Tax (CIT) rates.” www.taxsummaries.pwc.com/quick-charts/corporate-income-tax-cit-rates. .